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From roughly the fifth to the eighth century, Mont Saint-Michel belonged to the territory of Neustria, and in the early ninth century was an important place in the marches of Neustria. Before the construction of the first monastic establishment in the 8th century, the island was called Mont Tombe. According to legend, the archangel Michael appeared in to Aubert of Avranches, the bishop of Avranches, and instructed him to build a church on the rocky islet. This marked the beginning of the brief period of Breton possession of the Mont. In fact, these lands and Mont Saint-Michel were never really included in the duchy of Brittany and remained independent bishoprics from the newly created Breton archbishopric of Dol.

When Rollo confirmed Franco as archbishop of Rouen, these traditional dependences of the Rouen archbishopric were retained in it. The mount gained strategic significance again in when William I Longsword annexed the Cotentin Peninsula from the weakened Duchy of Brittany.

This made the mount definitively part of Normandy, and is depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, which commemorates the Norman conquest of England. Harold Godwinson is pictured on the tapestry rescuing two Norman knights from the quicksand in the tidal flats during a battle with Conan II, Duke of Brittany. Norman ducal patronage financed the spectacular Norman architecture of the abbey in subsequent centuries. In , the monastery of Mont Saint-Michel gave its support to William the Conqueror in his claim to the throne of England.

This he rewarded with properties and grounds on the English side of the Channel, including a small island off the southwestern coast of Cornwall which was modeled after the Mount and became a Norman priory named St Michael's Mount of Penzance. During the Hundred Years' War, the Kingdom of England made repeated assaults on the island but were unable to seize it due to the abbey's improved fortifications. The English initially besieged the Mont from to , and then again from to with English forces under the command of Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales.

Hardyng has amalgamated what appear to be two battalions in HRB , one headed by Arthur and one by Morvide.

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Arthur then leads his own company, which he positions behind the other battalions and identifies with his dragon banner to designate it as a fortified camp to which the wounded can withdraw. It is probably unique to Hardyng. While Hardyng may have taken his inspiration for this speech from this earlier section of HRB , the content is only loosely related.

Like 3. Hardyng assigns this task to Auguselus and Cador instead, possibly because he omits that part of HRB where Kay attempts to avenge Bedivere and rescue his body. The phrasing of this line is also interesting because of its similarity to RMB 1. Hardyng appears to be repeating information here. Assuming that Hardyng was not using an unidentified source, he either misread HRB or a chronicle related to it, such as RMB, or he deliberately altered it to reflect more favorably on the Britons.

Hardyng may have taken this detail from Lestoire de Merlin p. See notes 3. In other texts Mordred has already taken the crown and, in most cases, the queen. See also 3. Hardyng tries to reconcile the two disparate places by conflating the two.

Ebbe an der Küste der Normandie (German Edition)

In other sources, such as JG and P , Cheldrike does not die in this battle. Hardyng similarly accentuates her fall by expanding the reference to the church of St. Vinaver, I:cxliii—cxlvii. Hardyng presumably followed RMB, but see also note 3. Vinaver, III The epitaph appears to have gained some currency in the fifteenth century, and it probably circulated in oral form too, which Hardyng may have known.

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If Hardyng encountered it in written form, he may have known it from a lost text based on RB , linked with the source of Arthur , or a manuscript of the FP containing similar marginalia see note 7. Hardyng, who may have been recalling Mort Artu from memory, adapts his source, linking the Black Chapel with the chapel at Glastonbury reputedly dedicated to the Virgin Mary by St.

David, and he claims that Geryn who takes the place of the Vulgate Girflet spent four years there as hermit with Lancelot. David see, for example, JG , pp. Cooper, p. Throughout the manuscript, the marginalia, book and chapter headings, and the running heads featuring the names of the reigning kings, are written in red ink; often the first letter of each stanza of the main text is also written in red ink. Other features, such as scribal corrections, illumination, annotations by other hands other than the scribe s , and editiorial emendations are recorded as they occur.

Occasionally, background smudges and traces of letters or words occur behind the current text of Lansdowne Though beyond the scope of this edition, a comprehensive study of each instance of smudging is desirable, as some may have been caused by underwriting, indicating that the scribe s altered the work. The British Library analyzed ten examples of potential underwriting for us, using multispectral imagining equipment and Digital USB microscopy.

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Our selections fell into one of three categories. In such instances, traces of the original iron gall ink burn-through have survived, leaving partial letter-forms or words visible at a wavelength of nm on the electromagnetic spectrum; sadly, it is often impossible to discern complete letters or words, and ink burn-through from text overleaf further obscures the original writing, making it largely unrecoverable.

The following textual notes make references to confirmed instances of underwriting only; we do not highlight potential cases because, given the degradation of the ink, we feel that this could be misleading. MS: an illuminated initial. See Manuscript Description. This marginalia occurs alongside 3. MS: regn , due to marginal cropping.

MS: ad. MS: The first letter of this word has been overwritten in red ink.

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MS: the has been inserted above the line. MS: This part of the marginalia appears to have been added at a later stage of production.


Before m The arms of Constantine. MS: The armes of Constantine gules [red], a cross argent [silver] appear in the left-hand margin. MS: This word actually occurs in the left-hand margin beside 3. MS: That. This marginalia occurs beside 3. MS: this word appears to have been added at a later stage of production. MS: sanatours.

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MS: knyghhede. The original text contained similar information to the current marginalia referring to the arms containing Woden and Fry , but also cited Saint Colman as a source for the information. MS: called called. MS: This part of the marginalia may have been added at a later stage of production. MS: This word appears to have been added at a later stage of production.

MS: The capital G and C have been overwritten in red ink.

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MS: of of. MS: And. MS: the inserted above the line. MS: Br. MS: than. MS: Scoland. The first letter of this line has red ink in the center.

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MS: This marginalia occurs alongside 3. MS: inserted above the line. MS: Colgrenauitt. MS: Chartes. MS: his. MS: phlosophres. The shadows may be from the text overleaf. MS: Pelouse , due to cropping. Table 2.